candidate of Historical Sciences
Zaporizhzhya National University
candidate of Philological Sciences
Zaporizhzhya National University
Anotation: The plan for the end of the eternal war with the
Turks by Generalissimus Alexander Suvorov, which is
part of the foreign policy program under the Greek project of the Russian
Empress Catherine II, has been submitted for consideration. It aims to actively
Keywords: Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, VIII-th century, Tsar Peter I, Empress Catherine II, "Window to Europe", "Greek Project", Generalissimus Alexander Suvorov, Greek Orthodox Empire, Balkans, Greeks, Albanians, Bulgarians, Serbs, Montenegrins, Serbs, Tatars, Turks, Cossacks.
The world history of the 8th century was marked by a period of
revolutions, a new redistribution of territories and world markets, the
formation of major colonial powers, significant political, socio-economic
and cultural changes in the lives of the peoples of Europe and
The Russian Empire, a colonial state that emerged on
the basis of the lands of the former Moscow kingdom and was renamed in
the course of the reforms of Peter I (1708-1721), known as the "breaking
down of a window into Europe," did not stay away from these civilizational
processes. In order to modernize the country to the
European model and turn it into a powerful world empire, Peter I first sought
to get rid of international isolation and gain access to the seas – the Black
and the Baltic. The Russian expansion to the south (the Azov campaigns of 1695
and 1696) against the strong
Drawn at the beginning of the VIII century by Peter I, the dream
"to cut a window into
The fact that the most important strategic tasks of the Russian Empire – the expulsion of Turkey from the Northern Black Sea and the Crimea, the seizure of the Azov and Black seas coasts – was undoubtedly undisputed by Catherine II.
Plans for the full distribution of the European possessions of Turkey are traced not only in documents, materials, letters written by Catherine II (the Russian Archive, 1880), but also in so-called "notes" and reports of her closest associates, first of all G. Potemkin and O. Bezborodko (the Russian Archive, 1880; Eliseeva, O.╤., 1997).
One of the most talented Russian commanders, Alexander Suvorov (1730-1800), did not remain indifferent to the ideas of the Greek project. Evidence of this is the record of the Secretary of State Empress A.V. Khrapovytskyi. In his diary on November 22, 1792, he recorded the words of the former chief of the Office of the Commander-in-Chief of Novorossiysk Region V. Popov, who claimed that Suvorov and Mordvinov were eager to enter the Navy in the Tsar-grad. The Turks will immediately flee, and there will remain up to 300,000 Greeks – that's the legacy of Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich (A.V. Khrapovitsky's Diary, 1901).
About the vision of his participation in military campaigns in case of another war with the Ottoman Empire O.V. Suvorov repeatedly reported to the Empress and O. Bezborodko, wrote in semi-official and private letters to friends – officials of different ranks (Suvorov, A.V., 1952). Appointment by imperial rescript on November 10, 1792 O.V. Suvorov the commander of troops in the Katerynoslav province, the Crimea and the Yas peace-annexed lands, his active activity in bringing the ground forces into combat readiness, strengthening and completing the Black Sea Fleet and the Rowing Fleet give reason to speak about the active preparation and active training for the war with Turkey.
As a commander of the troops
The importance of protecting the
Throughout 1793 O.V. Suvorov conducted the active and intense
correspondence with the Russian representatives in Turkey O. Khvostov, I. Severin, later M. Golenishchiv-Kutuzov,
during which he received information on the status of theTurkish
fortresses, the number and preparation of the naval linear and the rowing
fleet, activity, about the unrest in the Christian provinces of the Ottoman
Empire, the mood at the Sultan's court, etc. (the Russian Archive, 1878). The commander was interested in
practically everything that could be used to understand the real state of affairs in
O.V. Suvorov payed special attention to the
territory that was to become the theater of the future military campaigns. He
was regularly informed of the presence on the first defensive frontier of the
However, the commander considered the possibility of the population resistance to the advancement of the Russian army deep into the Turkish regions. In the unfolding of such a scenario of events O.V. Suvorov insisted on the destruction of settlements with compact living of the Zaporozhye and Nekrasov-Lipovian population and on the physical extermination of their inhabitants (the Russian Archive, 1878).
The information received by O.V. Suvorov during the correspondence did not cause doubts. The Turkish sultan Selim III sought revenge in connection with the rapid pace of reorganization of its army units with the assistance of the French inspectors and augmentation of new navy galleries. It was necessary to act ahead of schedule.
Excellent knowledge of the topographic features of the area, which should
become a theater of future hostilities; experience of the previous
Russian-Turkish military campaigns; his own experience of participating in
hostilities against the Turks; obtained in various ways from the Turkish
regions, clear information about the status of the Turkish army and navy helped
the commander in drawing up a master plan for the implementation of the ideas
of the Greek project. It was prepared by O.V. Suvorov his stay in
O.V. Suvorov’s plan was deposited in the
archival collection of the Russian State Military-Historical Archive (
We pay attention to the copy with the date and place of writing of the document (RDVIA, Military-Academic Archive Foundation, case 17785, part II, pages 1-16). O.V. Suvorov’s plan is a fairly voluminous 32-page document that clearly states: the purpose of the war; the tasks of individual military campaigns with the planning of the interaction of naval and land forces; ways to engage local people in active action; calculated needs for forces and resources at each stage of the war and as a whole throughout the military campaign. It vividly demonstrates not only the commander's views on the strategy and tactics of conducting a military campaign against the powerful Ottoman Empire at the time, but also the political preferences of the commander, his attitude towards the realization of geopolitical interests in the southern borders of the Russian state.
It is worth noting that the prepared by O.V. Suvorov stern documents did
not include the name "Greek project" anywhere, but it was the plan of
the "end of the eternal war with the Turks" (the Russian Archive, 1914). At the same time, a detailed
examination of the plan of the offensive war with the
According to Suvorov's plan, the acquisition of
The purpose of the second campaign was to cross the Balkans and take
Constantinople at night landing five thousand
O.V. Suvorov's plan stands out from other projects prepared by other high-ranking officials (M. Mordvinov, O. Ribas, O. Samoilov, etc.), because it was prepared by a brilliant strategist, tactician and diplomat. In his plan, O. Suvorov was able to successfully combine not only purely military plans and perspectives, but also political (external and internal), as well as take into account the social consequences of military campaigns, the economic potential of regions and the country as a whole. The plan is offensive and provides the prospects for political change in the Balkans, namely: the creation of a Greek empire that will consist of Greece and Fr. Euboea in the Aegean; independence of scooter pasture; the possibility of granting territorial compensation to other states: England will receive Candia, Venice – part of Dalmatia and some islands of the archipelago, part of the counties of Bosnia and Serbia will depart to Austria.
Detailed developed by O. Suvorov plan of the "end of the eternal
war with the Turks" was sent to the capital and from there soon O.V.
Suvorov began to receive the orders from the President of the Military College
M. Saltykov, the commander of the troops in the
southern and western sections of the Russian border, which explicitly spoke
about the preparation for the offensive war against Turkey (Suvorov А.V., 1952).
It is possible that the military campaign against the
Thus, the plan of the "end of the eternal war with the Turks" worked out by O.V. Suvorov is a part of the foreign policy course of the Russian Empire during the reign of Catherine II, aimed at actively moving Russia to the Balkans and establishing full control over the seas (the Azov and the Black) with the prospect of domination of the main maritime and land trade routes between the West and the East, the new and the Old Worlds. The plan is thought out in detail, developed on the received and rechecked intelligence. A. Suvorov clearly formulated the strategic objectives of the war and its individual campaigns, identified the needs for forces and resources, considered the possible negative international resonance, and offered, if necessary, territorial compensation to other states.
Outlining the plan of the two military campaigns, the commander urged
the Russian government to double preparations for them, because, he said, the
1. Correspondence of Catherine the Great with the
German Emperor Joseph II. 1774-1790. (1880). Russian Archive, book I, 210-355.
2. Correspondence A.V. Suvorov 1793 partially
published: From the papers of Field Marshal Prince Suvorov. (1878). Russian Archive,
3. Diary of A.V. Khrapovitsky's
From 18 January 1782 to 17 September 1793, p.
4. Eliseeva, O.I.
(1997). Geopolitical projects GA Potemkin. Companions
of the Great Catherine, 26-31.
5. Plan submitted by Count Suvorov for approval by Her
Majesty the Russian Empress in 1795. (1914). Russian Archive, No. 6-7, p. 160-189.
6. The Russian State Military History Archive (RSMHA),the Foundation MSA («the Military Scientific Archive», сase 17785, part I, pages. 1, 4-18; part II, pages. 1-16.
7. Suvorov, A.V. (1952). Documents. T. 3. 1791-1798.
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3. Дневник А.В. Храповицкого с 18 января 1782 по 17 сентября 1793 года, с. 243. Москва.
4. Елисеева, О.И. (1997). Геополитические проекты Г.А. Потемкина. Сподвижники Великой Екатерины, 26-31. Москва.
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